The Life of John Milton, Volume 5 (of 7), 1654 1660


Narrated in Connexion with the Political, Ecclesiastical, and Literary

History of His Time by DAVID MASSON, M.A., LL.D.,

Professor of Rhetoric and English Literature in the University of  Edinburgh



London:  MacMillan and Co.








I. SECTION I. Oliver and his First Parliament: Sept. 3, 1654-Jan.

22, 1654-5.--Meeting of the First Parliament of the Protectorate:

Its Composition: Anti-Oliverians numerous in it: Their Four Days'

Debate in challenge of Cromwell's Powers: Debate stopped by Cromwell:

His Speech in the Painted Chamber: Secession of some from the

Parliament: Acquiescence of the rest by Adoption of _The

Recognition_: Spirit and Proceedings of the Parliament still

mainly Anti-Oliverian: Their Four Months' Work in Revision of the

Protectoral Constitution: Chief Debates in those Four Months:

Question of the Protector's Negatives: Other Incidental Work of the

Parliament: Question of Religious Toleration and of the Suppression

of Heresies and Blasphemies: Committee and Sub-Committee on this

Subject: Baxter's Participation: Tendency to a Limited Toleration

only, and Vote against the Protector's Prerogative of more: Case of

John Biddle, the Socinian.--Insufficiency now of our former Synopsis

of English Sects and Heresies: New Sects and Denominations: The

Fifth-Monarchy Men: The Ranters: The Muggletonians and other Stray

Fanatics: Bochmenists and other Mystics: The Quakers or Friends:

Account of George Fox, and Sketch of the History of the Quakers to

the year 1654.--Policy of the Parliament with their Bill for a New

Constitution: Parliament outwitted by Cromwell and dissolved: No


I. SECTION II. Between the Parliaments, or the Time of Arbitrariness:

Jan. 22, 1654-55--Sept. 17, 1656.--Avowed "Arbitrariness" of this

Stage of the Protectorate, and Reasons for it.--First Meeting of

Cromwell and his Council after the Dissolution: Major-General Overton

in Custody: Other Arrests: Suppression of a wide Republican

Conspiracy and of Royalist Risings in Yorkshire and the West: Revenue

Ordinance and Mr. Cony's Opposition at Law: Deference of Foreign

Governments: Blake in the Mediterranean: Massacre of the Piedmontese

Protestants: Details of the Story and of Cromwell's Proceedings in

consequence: Penn in the Spanish West Indies: His Repulse from

Hispaniola and Landing in Jamaica: Declaration of War with Spain and

Alliance with France: Scheme of the Government of England by

Major-Generals: List of them and Summary of their Police-System:

Decimation Tax on the Royalists, and other Measures _in

terrorem_: Consolidation of the London Newspaper Press:

Proceedings of the Commission of Ejectors and of the Commission of

Triers: View of Cromwell's Established Church of England, with

Enumeration of its various Components: Extent of Toleration outside

the Established Church: The Protector's Treatment of the Roman

Catholics, the Episcopalians, the Anti-Trinitarians, the Quakers, and

the Jews: State of the English Universities and Schools under the

Protectorate: Cromwell's Patronage of Learning: List of English Men

of Letters alive in 1656, and Account of their Diverse Relations to

Cromwell: Poetical Panegyrics on him and his Protectorate.--New

Arrangements for the Government of Scotland: Lord Broghill's

Presidency there for Cromwell: General State of the Country:

Continued Struggle between the Resolutioners and the Protesters for

Kirk-Supremacy: Independency and Quakerism in Scotland: More Extreme

Anomalies there: Story of "Jock of Broad Scotland": Brisk Intercourse

between Scotland and London: Mission of Mr. James Sharp.--Ireland

from 1654 to 1656.--Glimpse of the Colonies.

I. SECTION III. Oliver and the First Session of his Second

Parliament: Sept. 17, 1656-June 26, 1657.--Second Parliament of the

Protectorate called: Vane's _Healing Question_ and another

Anti-Oliverian Pamphlet: Precautions and Arrests: Meeting of the

Parliament: Its Composition: Summary of Cromwell's Opening Speech:

Exclusion of Ninety-three Anti-Oliverian Members: Decidedly Oliverian

Temper of the rest: Question of the Excluded Members: Their Protest:

Summary of the Proceedings of the Parliament for Five Months (Sept.

1656-Feb. 1656-7): Administration of Cromwell and his Council during

those Months: Approaches to Disagreement between Cromwell and the

Parliament in the _Case of James Nayler_ and on the Question of

Continuation of the Militia by Major-Generals: No Rupture.--The

Soxby-Sindercombe Plot.--Sir Christopher Pack's Motion for a New

Constitution (Feb. 23, 1656-7): Its Issue in the _Petition and

Advice_ and Offer of the Crown to Cromwell: Division of Public

Opinion on the Kingship Question: Opposition among the Army Officers:

Cromwell's Neutral Attitude: His Reception of the Offer: His long

Hesitations and several Speeches over the Affair: His Final Refusal

(May 8, 1657): Ludlow's Story of the Cause.--Harrison and the Fifth

Monarchy Men: Venner's Outbreak at Mile-End-Green.--Proposed New

Constitution of the _Petition and Advice_ retained in the form

of a Continued Protectorate: Supplements to the _Petition and

Advice_: Bills assented to by the Protector, June 9: Votes for the

Spanish War.--Treaty Offensive and Defensive with France against

Spain: Dispatch of English Auxiliary Army, under Reynolds, for

Service in Flanders: Blake's Action in Santa Cruz Bay.--"_Killing

no Murder_": _Additional and Explanatory Petition and

Advice_: Abstract of the Articles of the New Constitution as

arranged by the two Documents: Cromwell's completed Assent to the New

Constitution, and his Assent to other Bills. June 26, 1657:

Inauguration of the Second Protectorate that day: Close of the First

Session of the Second Parliament.


II. Milton's Life and Secretaryship through the First Protectorate

continued: September 1654-June 1657.--SECTION I.: From September 1654

to January 1654-5, or Through Oliver's First Parliament.--Ulac's

Hague Edition of Milton's _Defensio Secunda_, with the _Fides

Publica_ of Morus annexed: Preface by Dr. Crantzius to the

Reprint: Ulac's own Preface of Self-Defence: Account of Morus's

_Fides Publica_, with Extracts: His Citation of Testimonies to

his Character: Testimony of Diodati of Geneva: Abrupt Ending of the

Book at this Point, with Ulac's Explanation of the

Cause.--Particulars of the Arrest and Imprisonment of Milton's Friend

Overton.--Three more Latin State-Letters by Milton for Oliver (Nos.

XLIX.-LI.): No State-Letters by Milton for the next Three Months:

Milton then busy on a Reply to the _Fides Publica_ of Morus.


II. SECTION II.: From January 1654-5 to September 1656, or Through

the Period of Arbitrariness.--Letter to Milton from Leo de Aitzema:

Milton's Reply: Letter to Ezekiel Spanheim at Geneva: Milton's

Genovese Recollections and Acquaintances: Two more of Milton's Latin

State-Letters (Nos. LII., LIII.): Small Amount of Milton's

Despatch-Writing for Cromwell hitherto.--Reduction of Official

Salaries, and Proposal to Reduce Milton's to L150 a Year: Actual

Commutation of his L288 a Year at Pleasure into L200 for Life: Orders

of the Protector and Council relating to the Piedmontese Massacre,

May 1655: Sudden Demand on Milton's Pen in that Business: His Letter

of Remonstrance from the Protector to the Duke of Savoy, with Ten

other Letters to Foreign States and Princes on the same Subject (Nos.

LIV.-LXIV.): His Sonnet on the Subject.--Publication of the

_Supplementum_ to More's _Fides Publica_: Account of the

_Supplementum_, with Extracts: Milton's Answer to the _Fides

Publica_ and the _Supplementum_ together in his _Pro Se

Defensio_, Aug. 1655: Account of that Book, with Specimens:

Milton's Disbelief in Morus's Denials of the Authorship of the

_Regii Sanguinis Clamor_: His Reasons, and his Reassertions of

the Charge in a Modified Form: His Notices of Dr. Crantzius and Ulac:

His Renewed Onslaughts on Morus: His Repetition of the Bontia

Accusation and others: His Examination of Morus's Printed

Testimonials: Ferocity of the Book to the last: Its Effects on

Morus.--Question of the Real Authorship of the _Regii Sanguinis

Clamor_ and of the Amount of Morus's Concern in it: The Du Moulin

Family: Dr. Peter Du Moulin the Younger the Real Author of the

_Regii Sanguinis Clamor_, but Morus the Active Editor and the

Writer of the Dedicatory Epistle: Du Moulin's own Account of the

whole Affair: His close Contact with Milton all the while, and Dread

of being found out.--Calm in Milton's Life after the Cessation of the

Morus-Salmasius Controversy: Home-Life in Petty France: Dabblings of

the Two Nephews in Literature: John Phillips's _Satyr against

Hypocrites_: Frequent Visitors at Petty France: Marvell, Needham,

Cyriack Skinner, &c.;: The Viscountess Ranelagh, Mr. Richard Jones,

and the Boyle Connexion: Dr. Peter Du Moulin in that Connexion:

Milton's Private Sonnet on his Blindness, his Two Sonnets to Cyriack

Skinner, and his Sonnet to young Lawrence: Explanation of these Four

Sonnets.--_Scriptum Domini Protectoris contra Hispanos_:

Thirteen more Latin State-Letters of Milton for the Protector (Nos.

LXV.-LXXVII.), with Special Account of Count Bundt and the Swedish

Embassy in London: Count Bundt and Mr. Milton.--Increase of Light

Literature in London: Erotic Publications: John Phillips in Trouble

for such: Edward Phillips's London Edition of the Poems of Drummond

of Hawthornden: Milton's Cognisance of the same.--Henry Oldenburg

and Mr. Richard Jones at Oxford: Letters of Milton to Jones and

Oldenburg.--Thirteen more State-Letters of the Milton Series (Nos.

LXXVIII.-XC.): Importance of some of them.


II. SECTION III.: From September 1656 to June 1657, or Through the

First Session of Oliver's Second Parliament.--Another Letter from

Milton to Mr. Richard Jones: Departure of Lady Ranelagh for Ireland:

Letter from Milton to Peter Heimbach: Milton's Second Marriage: His

Second Wife, Katharine Woodcock: Letter to Emeric Bigot: Milton's

Library and the Byzantine Historians: M. Stoupe: Ten more

State-Letters by Milton for the Protector (Nos. XCI.-C.): Morland,

Meadows, Durie, Lockhart, and other Diplomatists of the Protector,

back in London: More Embassies and Dispatches over Land and Sea:

Milton Standing and Waiting: His Thoughts about the Protectorate








I. Oliver's Second Protectorate: June 26, 1657-Sept. 3, 1658.--Regal

Forms and Ceremonial of the Second Protectorate: The Protector's

Family: The Privy Council: Retirement of Lambert: Death of Admiral

Blake: The French Alliance and Successes in Flanders: Siege and

Capture of Mardike: Other Foreign Relations of the Protectorate:

Special Envoys to Denmark, Sweden, and the United Provinces: Aims of

Cromwell's Diplomacy in Northern and Eastern Europe: Progress of his

English Church-Establishment: Controversy between John Goodwill and

Marchamont Needham: The Protector and the Quakers: Death of John

Lilburne: Death of Sexby: Marriage of the Duke of Buckingham to Mary

Fairfax: Marriages of Cromwell's Two Youngest Daughters: Preparations

for another Session of the Parliament: Writs for the Other House:

List of Cromwell's Peers.--Reassembling of the Parliament. Jan. 20,

1667-8: Cromwell's Opening Speech, with the Supplement by Fiennes:

Anti-Oliverian Spirit of the Commons: Their Opposition to the Other

House: Cromwell's Speech of Remonstrance: Perseverance of the Commons

in their Opposition: Cromwell's Last Speech and Dissolution of the

Parliament, Feb. 4, 1657-8.--State of the Government after the

Dissolution: The Dangers, and Cromwell's Dealings with them: His

Light Dealings with the Disaffected Commonwealth's Men: Threatened

Spanish Invasion from Flanders, and Ramifications of the Royalist

Conspiracy at Home: Arrests of Royalists, and Execution of Slingsby

and Hewit: The Conspiracy crushed: Death of Robert Rich: The Earl of

Warwick's Letter to Cromwell, and his Death: More Successes in

Flanders: Siege and Capture of Dunkirk: Splendid Exchanges of

Compliments between Cromwell and Louis XIV.: New Interference in

behalf of the Piedmontese Protestants, and Project of a Protestant

Council _De Propaganda Fide_: Prospects of the Church

Establishment: Desire of the Independents for a Confession of Faith:

Attendant Difficulties: Cromwell's Policy in the Affairs of the

Scottish Kirk: His Design for the Evangelization and Civilization of

the Highlands: His Grants to the Universities of Edinburgh and

Glasgow: His Council in Scotland: Monk at Dalkeith: Cromwell's

Intentions in the Cases of Biddle and James Nayler: Proposed New Act

for Restriction of the Press: Firmness and Grandeur of the

Protectorate in July 1658: Cromwell's Baronetcies and Knighthoods:

Willingness to call another Parliament: Death of Lady Claypole:

Cromwell's Illness and Last Days, with the Last Acts and Incidents of

his Protectorship.


II. Milton's Life and Secretaryship through the Second Protectorate.

--Milton still in Office: Letter to Mr. Henry de Brass, with Milton's

Opinion of Sallust: Letters to Young Ranelagh and Henry Oldenburg at

Saumur: Morus in New Circumstances: Eleven more State-Letters of

Milton for the Protector (Nos. CI.-CXI.): Andrew Marvell brought in

as Assistant Foreign Secretary at last (Sept. 1657): John Dryden now

also in the Protector's Employment: Birth of Milton's Daughter by his

Second Wife: Six more State-Letters of Milton (Nos. CXII.-CXVII.):

Another Letter to Mr. Henry de Brass, and another to Peter Heimbach:

Comment on the latter: Deaths of Milton's Second Wife and her Child:

His two Nephews, Edward and John Phillips, at this date: Milton's

last Sixteen State-Letters for Oliver Cromwell (Nos.

CXVIII.-CXXXIII), including Two to Charles Gustavus of Sweden, Two on

a New Alarm of a Persecution of the Piedmontese Protestants, and

Several to Louis XIV. and Cardinal Mazarin: Importance of this last

Group of the State-Letters, and Review of the whole Series of

Milton's Performances for Cromwell: Last Diplomatic Incidents of the

Protectorate, and Andrew Marvell in connexion with them: Incidents of

Milton's Literary Life in this Period: Young Guentzer's

_Dissertatio_ and Young Kock's Phalaecians: Milton's Edition of

Raleigh's Cabinet Council: Resumption of the old Design of Paradise

Lost and actual Commencement of the Poem: Change from the Dramatic

Form to the Epic: Sonnet in Memory of his Deceased Wife.


SEPTEMBER 1658--MAY 1660.





STAGE I.:--THE RESTORED RUMP: MAY 25, 1659--OCT. 13, 1659.


1659--DEC. 26, 1659.


MARCH FROM SCOTLAND: DEC. 26, 1659--FEB. 21, 1859-60.






I. FIRST SECTION. The Protectorate of Richard Cromwell: Sept. 3,

1858--May 25, 1659.--Proclamation of Richard: Hearty Response from

the Country and from Foreign Powers: Funeral of the late Protector:

Resolution for a New Parliament.--Difficulties in Prospect: List of

the most Conspicuous Props and Assessors of the New Protectorate:

Monk's Advice to Richard: Union of the Cromwellians against Charles

Stuart: Their Split among themselves into the Court or Dynastic Party

and the Army or Wallingford-House Party: Chiefs of the Two Parties:

Richard's Preference for the Court Party, and his Speech to the Army

Officers: Backing of the Army Party towards Republicanism or

Anti-Oliverianism: Henry Cromwell's Letter of Rebuke to Fleetwood:

Differences of the Two Parties as to Foreign Policy: The French

Alliance and the War with Spain: Relations to the King of

Sweden.--Meeting of Richard's Parliament (Jan. 27, 1658-9): The Two

Houses: Eminent Members of the Commons: Richard's Opening Speech:

Thurloe the Leader for Government in the Commons: Recognition of the

Protectorship and of the Other House, and General Triumph of the

Government Party: Miscellaneous Proceedings of the

Parliament.--Dissatisfaction of the Army Party: Their Closer

Connexion with the Republicans: New Convention of Officers at

Wallingford-House: Desborough's Speech; The Convention forbidden by

the Parliament and dissolved by Richard: Whitehall surrounded by the

Army, and Richard compelled to dissolve the Parliament.--Responsible

Position of Fleetwood, Desborough, Lambert, and the other Army

Chiefs: Bankrupt State of the Finances: Necessity for some kind of

Parliament: Phrenzy for "The Good Old Cause" and Demand for the

Restoration of the Rump: Acquiescence of the Army Chiefs: Lenthall's

Objections: First Fortnight of the Restored Rump: Lingering of

Richard in Whitehall: His Enforced Abdication.


I. SECOND SECTION. The Anarchy, Stage I.: or The Restored Rump: May

25, 1659-Oct. 13, 1659.--Number of the Restored Rumpers and List of

them: Council of State of the Restored Rump: Anomalous Character and

Position of the New Government: Momentary Chance of a Civil War

between the Cromwellians and the Rumpers: Chance averted by the

Acquiescence of the Leading Cromwellians: Behaviour of Richard

Cromwell, Monk, Henry Cromwell, Lockhart, and Thurloe, individually:

Baulked Cromwellianism becomes Potential Royalism: Energetic

Proceedings of the Restored Rump: Their Ecclesiastical Policy and

their Foreign Policy: Treaty between France and Spain: Lockhart at

the Scene of the Negotiations as Ambassador for the Rump: Remodelling

and Reofficering of the Army, Navy, and Militia: Confederacy of Old

and New Royalists for a Simultaneous Rising: Actual Rising under Sir

George Booth in Cheshire: Lambert sent to quell the Insurrection:

Peculiar Intrigues round Monk at Dalkeith: Sir George Booth's

Insurrection crushed: Exultation of the Rump and Action taken against

the Chief Insurgents and their Associates: Question of the future

Constitution of the Commonwealth: Chaos of Opinions and Proposals:

James Harrington and his Political Theories: The Harrington or Rota

Club: Discontents in the Army: Petition, and Proposals of the

Officers of Lambert's Brigade: Severe Notice of the same by the Rump:

Petition and Proposals of the General Council of Officers: Resolute

Answers of the Rump: Lambert, Desborough, and Seven other Officers,

cashiered: Lambert's Retaliation and Stoppage of the Parliament.


I. SECOND SECTION (continued). The Anarchy, Stage II.: or The

Wallingford-House Interregnum: Oct. 13, 1659-Dec. 26, 1659.--The

Wallingford-House Government: Its _Committee of Safety_:

Behaviour of Ludlow and other Leading Republicans: Death of

Bradshaw.--Army--Arrangements of the New Government: Fleetwood,

Lambert, and Desborough, the Military Chiefs: Declared Championship

of the Rump by Monk in Scotland: Negotiations opened with Monk, and

Lambert sent north to oppose him: Monk's Mock Treaty with Lambert and

the Wallingford-House Government through Commissioners in London: His

Preparations meanwhile in Scotland: His Advance from Edinburgh to

Berwick: Monk's Army and Lambert's.--Foreign Relations of the

Wallingford-House Government: Treaty between France and Spain:

Lockhart: Charles II. at Fontarabia: Gradual Improvement of his

Chances in England.--Discussions of the Wallingford-House Government

as to the future Constitution of the Commonwealth: The Vane Party and

the Whitlocke Party in these Discussions: Johnstone of Warriston, the

Harringtonians, and Ludlow: Attempted Conclusions.--Monk at

Coldstream: Universal Whirl of Opinion in favour of him and the

Rump: Utter Discredit of the Wallingford-House Rule in London:

Vacillation and Collapse of Fleetwood: The Rump Restored a second



I. SECOND SECTION (continued). The Anarchy, Stage III.: or Second

Restoration of the Rump, with Monk's March from Scotland: Dec. 26,

1659-Feb. 21, 1659.--The Rump after its Second Restoration: New

Council of State: Penalties on Vane, Lambert, Desborough, and the

other Chiefs of the Wallingford-House Interregnum: Case of Ludlow:

New Army Remodelling: Abatement of Republican Fervency among the

Rumpers: Dispersion of Lambert's Force in the North: Monk's March

from Scotland: Stages and Incidents of the March: His Halt at St.

Alban's and Message thence to the Rump: His Nearer View of the

Situation: His Entry into London, Feb. 3, 1659-60: His Ambiguous

Speech to the Rump, Feb. 6: His Popularity in London: Pamphlets and

Letters during his March and on his Arrival: Prynne's pamphlets on

behalf of the Secluded Members: Tumult in the City: Tumult suppressed

by Monk as Servant of the Rump: His Popularity gone: Blunder

retrieved by Monk's Reconciliation with the City and Declaration

against the Rump: _Roasting of the Rump in London_, Feb. 11,

1659-60: Monk Master of the City and of the Rump too; Consultations

with the Secluded Members: Bill of the Rump for Enlarging itself by

New Elections; Bill set aside by the Reseating of the Secluded

Members: Reconstitution of the Long Parliament under Monk's



I. THIRD SECTION. Monk's Dictatorship, the Restored Long Parliament,

and the Drift to the Restoration: Feb. 21, 1659-60--April 25,

1660.--The Restored Long Parliament: New Council of State: Active Men

of the Parliament: Prynne, Arthur Annesley, and William Morrice:

Miscellaneous Proceedings of the Parliament: Release of old Royalist

Prisoners: Lambert committed to the Tower: Rewards and Honours for

Monk: "Old George" in the City: Revival of the Solemn League and

Covenant, the Westminster Confession of Faith, and all the Apparatus

of a Strict Presbyterian Church-Establishment: Cautious Measures for

a Political Settlement: The Real Question evaded and handed over to

another Parliament: Calling of the Convention Parliament and

Arrangements for the Same: Difficulty about a House of Lords: How

obviated: Last Day of the Long Parliament, March 16, 1659-60: Scene

in the House.--Monk and the Council of State left in charge: Annesley

the Managing Colleague of Monk: New Militia Act carried out:

Discontents among Monk's Officers and Soldiers: The Restoration of

Charles still very dubious: Other Hopes and Proposals for the moment:

The Kingship privately offered to Monk by the Republicans: Offer

declined: Bursting of the Popular Torrent of Royalism at last, and

Enthusiastic Demands for the Recall of Charles: Elections to the

Convention Parliament going on meanwhile: Haste of hundreds to be

foremost in bidding Charles welcome: Admiral Montague and his Fleet

in the Thames: Direct Communications at last between Monk and

Charles: Greenville the Go-between: Removal of Charles and his Court

from Brussels to Breda: Greenville sent back from Breda with a

Commission for Monk and Six other Documents.--Broken-spiritedness of

the Republican Leaders, but formidable Residue of Republicanism in

the Army: Monk's Measures for Paralysing the same: Successful Device

of Charges; Montague's Fleet in Motion: Escape of Lambert from the

Tower: His Rendezvous in Northamptonshire: Gathering of a Wreck of

the Republicans round him: Dick Ingoldsby sent to crush him: The

Encounter near Daventry, April 22, 1660, and Recapture of Lambert:

Great Review of the London Militia, April 24, the day before the

Meeting of the Convention Parliament: Impatient longing for Charles:

Monk still impenetrable, and the Documents from Breda reserved.


II. FIRST SECTION. Milton's Life and Secretaryship through Richard's

Protectorate: Sept. 1658-May 1659.--Milton and Marvell still in the

Latin Secretaryship: Milton's first Five State-Letters for Richard

(Nos. CXXXIII.-CXXXVII.): New Edition of Milton's _Defensio

Prima_: Remarkable Postscript to that Edition: Six more

State-Letters for Richard (Nos. CXXXVIII.-CXLIII.): Milton's

Relations to the Conflict of Parties round Richard and in Richard's

Parliament: His probable Career but for his Blindness: His continued

Cromwellianism in Politics, but with stronger private Reserves,

especially on the Question of an Established Church: His Reputation

that of a man of the Court-Party among the Protectoratists: His

_Treatise of Civil Power in Ecclesiastical Causes_: Account of

the Treatise, with Extracts: The Treatise more than a Plea for

Religious Toleration: Church-Disestablishment the Fundamental Idea:

The Treatise addressed to Richard's Parliament, and chiefly to Vane

and the Republicans there: No Effect from it: Milton's Four last

State-Letters for Richard (Nos. CXLIV.-CXLVII.): His Private Epistle

to Jean Labadie, with Account of that Person: Milton in the month

between Richard's Dissolution of his Parliament and his formal

Abdication: His Two State-Letters for the Restored Rump (Nos.